Senin, 25 Mei 2009


Narrative biasanya berbentuk:
- cerita atau dongeng
- terdapat peristiwa rumit/masalah dan langkah yang diambil untuk memecahkan masalah itu
- contoh: tale (dongeng), folktale (cerita rakyat), legend (legenda), dan fable
- menggunakan SIMPLE PAST TENSE
- goal/communicative purpose/tujuan: to entertain readers (menghibur pembaca)
- generic structure:
a. ORIENTATION: pendahuluan yang berupa pengenalan tokoh, tempat, dan waktu (who, where, when)
Long time ago there lived a beautiful girl named Cinderella. Because her parents passed away, she lived with her mother and step sisters. Cinderella was very sad everyday she had to do the housework alone.
b. COMPLICATION/CRISIS: pemunculan masalah
One day, the king wanted to find a wife for his son. He invited all the beautiful girls to come. Cinderella was very sad because her step sisters did not let her go. Her sisters went to the palace without Cinderella.
c. RESOLUTION: pemecahan/penyelesaian masalah
Luckily the fairy mother came and helped Cinderella to go to the palace. In the palace Cinderella danced with the prince. He fell in love with her, and then he married her. They lived happily ever after.
d. REORIENTATION: penutup, berisi ungkapan yang menunjukkan bahwa cerita sudah selesai
e. CODA: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat diambil dari cerita

*REORIENTATION dan CODA bersifat opsional (boleh ada, boleh tidak)

- Teks berisi pengalaman, kejadian, atau peristiwa seseorang
- goal/communicative purpose/tujuan: to retell (menceritakan) peristiwa yang telah terjadi pada seseorang
- generic structure:
a. ORIENTATION: pengenalan pelaku, tempat kejadian berlangsung, dan waktu kejadian (who, where, and when)
Last month, Rahmat and Dodi went to Ancol. They went to Ancol to see the Sea World and swim in Gelanggang Samudra.
b. EVENTS: rangkaian peristiwa yang terjadi pada tokoh/pelaku
They went at 9 a.m. from their house by taxi. On the way, they bought some drink and snacks at a shop. In Ancol, first they went to the Sea World. There were many kinds of fish they saw. They were sometimes afraid of seeing very big fish.
After that they swam in Gelanggang Samudra. They were very happy swimming while making jokes. At 4 o’clock they went home.
c. REORIENTATION: penutup yang biasanya diikuti komentar pelaku/tokoh tentang kejadian yang dialaminya
The trip was tiring, but Rahmat and Dodi enjoyed the trip very much.

- Teks berisi deskripsi/gambaran seseorang, benda, atau binatang secara spesifik
- goal/communicative purpose/tujuan: to describe something/someone specifically
- generic structure:
a. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION/IDENTIFICATION: pendahuluan tentang apa/siapa yang akan dideskripsikan
I have a pet. It is a dog and I call it Brownie.
b. DESCRIPTION: deskripsi/gambaran benda/orang tersebut
Brownie is a Chinese breed. It is small, fluffy and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Brownie does not like bones. Every day it eats soft food like steamed rice, fish or bread. Every morning I give it milk and bread. When I am at school, Brownie plays with my cat. They get along well and never fight, maybe because Brownie doesn’t bark a lot. It treats other animals in our house gently and it never eats shoes. Brownie is really a sweet and friendly animal.

- Membahas tentang penelaahan, pengamatan hasil studi
- Menjelaskan benda/binatang secara umum (general)
- goal/communicative purpose/tujuan: to menggambarkan participant apa adanya secara umum
- generic structure:
a. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION: pernyataan umum tentang benda/binatang tersebut
The largest meat-eating animal in the world is the brown bear that lives in Alaska, North America. It will keep away from people, but when it is hungry, the brown bear can outfight a tiger. So, don’t ever try to wound the mother or the cub.
b. DESCRIPTION: deskripsi benda/binatang tersebut
A grown brown bear may be up to 10 feet tall. It weighs about 800 kilograms. When it was born, it weighed only about a half kilo. The paws are very sharp. It can kill if it hurts us.

- Teks tentang langkah/cara untuk melakukan sesuatu
- Goal/communicative purpose/tujuan:menerangkan bagaimana melakukan sesuatu
- General structure:
a. AIM/GOAL: tujuan melakukan kegiatan
How to use the oxygen mask
b. MATERIALS: bahan-bahan yang dibutuhkan
Oxygen mask
c. STEPS/METHODS: cara/langkah melakukan kegiatan
- First, pull down the mask
- The oxygen mask will automatically fall from the unit above your head
- Parents should adjust their own mask first, then help their children
- Secure the mask by adjusting the strap around your head
- Place it firmly over your mouth and nose

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